HOW IS THE COURSE OF THE DISEASE?
The MS begins between 20 and 30 years in outbreaks . An outbreak is the paralysis of an arm or leg, loss of sensation , blurred or double vision or loss of balance that lasts several weeks and then recovered partially or completely . Eventually outbreaks can leave sequelae. Some patients never have outbreaks and disease is progressive.
In multiple sclerosis an autoimmune reaction occurs for unknown reasons , by macrophages and lymphocytes that cross the blood-brain barriers . This reaction is visualized by MRI as multiple sclerotic areas that give name to the disease.
HOW IS IT?
Fortunately, at present there are various treatments that help control outbreaks and prevent sequelae. Such treatments modulate defenses and prevent inflammation . Some of the treatments may have side effects that require control. Currently we have : Interferon -beta , Glatiramer Acetate , Natalizumab , Fingolimod or chemotherapy. Shortly be Teriflunomide , Dimethylfumarate and Alemtuzumab . With these treatments are able to control the phase varying degrees in outbreaks , but the aftermath and the progression of the disease is not controlled or retrieved using these medications. There is currently a very active research to develop new treatments to prevent the progression of MS and retrieve the aftermath
HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED?
MS is diagnosed by its characteristic clinical course and with the help of some diagnostic tests. The most important is the brain MRI allows brain injury and see whether any of them is swollen at the time. The MRI is very sensitive in detecting MS lesions . Other tests performed to confirm the diagnosis are: 1 ) the determination of gamma globulins or antibodies ( oligoclonal bands) in the cerebrospinal fluid (obtained by lumbar puncture) ; 2) visual evoked potentials , motor, sensory or auditory , that detect nerve damage caused by injury ); 3) The optical coherence tomography to detect damage of the optic nerve injury through the retina ; 4) blood tests can rule out other rheumatologic or infectious diseases.